Posts tagged with "job prospects"

What’s In a Separation Agreement?

With the economy where it is, the employment lawyers in the Westport, Connecticut office of Maya Murphy, P.C. are frequently asked to review and negotiate separation agreements for terminated employees.  These agreements often appear similar in form and content but must be carefully scrutinized, as they can contain hidden “trip wires” that can have a profound and long-lasting effect on the former employee’s job prospects.  Here are some of the things to look out for.

Most separation agreements contain restrictive covenants—confidentiality, non-solicitation, or non-competition clauses.  The first two—confidentiality and non-solicitation—are typically non-controversial, as they often confirm pre-existing obligations owed an employer by a former employee.  The last—non-competition—is usually a point of contention, as it impacts directly the employee’s ability to find a new position.  We have blogged extensively on non-competes, their interpretation and enforceability, etc. and readers are invited to review those prior posts.  But other terms and conditions of a separation agreement deserve your attention, as well.

First of all, do not be surprised by the length of a separation agreement.  A federal statute called the Older Worker’s Benefit and Protection Act requires the inclusion of extensive release language, and such things as a 21 day review and seven day revocation period.  Here are some of the other things you should be on the lookout for:

  • Consideration:  Make sure all of the severance benefits are correct and clearly stated.  This includes severance pay, COBRA coverage, etc.  Do not leave anything to inference or implication.
  • Confirmation that No Claims Exist/Covenant Not to Sue: Notwithstanding the comprehensive release language, some separation agreements will also require the employee to state that he/she is not aware of any factual basis to support any charge or complaint and that the employee will forego suit, even if such a claim exists.
  • Non-disparagement: Both sides often agree that neither will say anything to disparage the other.  Sometimes (particularly in the financial industry), a separation agreement will contain a “carve out” for employer reporting to FINRA or the SEC.  In such a case, it is important to have the agreement state that as of the employee’s separation date, the employer was not aware of any reportable event or information that would warrant comment or notation on a Form U-5.
  • Governing Law:  Employment law does not travel well across state lines.  For example, California law is much different than Connecticut’s.  Large companies will sometimes have their separation agreements governed by the law of the state where it has its headquarters, irrespective of the actual place of work of the departing employee.
  • Acknowledgement of Non-Revocation: An employee has seven days within which to revoke acceptance of a separation agreement.  Some companies adopt a “belt and suspenders” approach and require the employee to acknowledge in writing a negative—that they have not revoked such acceptance.

The employment law attorneys in the Westport, Connecticut office of Maya Murphy, P.C. have extensive experience in the negotiation and litigation of all sorts of employment-related disputes and assist clients from Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, Norwalk, Westport and Fairfield in resolving such issues.  203-221-3100.


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Excessive Geographical Restriction Invalidates Connecticut Non-Compete Between Dance Studio and Instructor

Excessive Geographical Restriction Invalidates Connecticut Non-Compete Between Dance Studio and Instructor
RKR Dance Studios, Inc. v. Makowski, 2008 Conn. Super. LEXIS 2295

This case involved the legal analysis used to determine if a non-compete agreement between a dance studio and one of its instructors is enforceable in the State of Connecticut. Jessica Makowski worked as an at-will instructor for RKR Dance Studios from November 29, 2001 to September 28, 2007 at one of its franchised dance studios. Maximize Your Impact, LLC became the franchisor for RKR in January 2004 and thus became the employer of Ms. Makowski. She signed a non-compete agreement with Maximize on May 5, 2006 that contained provisions specifying a two year duration and geographical limitation of fifteen mile radius from Maximize’s dance studio and a ten mile radius from any Fred Astaire Dance Studio, whether they be corporate-owned, franchised, or otherwise established. Ms. Makowski voluntarily left Maximize on September 28, 2007 and shortly thereafter began employment with Steps in Time, a dance studio located within ten miles of another Fred Astaire Dance Studio. Maximize sued Ms. Makowski to enforce the provisions of the non-compete agreement. Ms. Makowski contended that she did not violate the agreement because there was inadequate consideration and unreasonable limitations, characteristics that would make the non-compete agreement unenforceable. The court, while finding that there was adequate consideration, ultimately found in favor of Ms. Makowski, held the non-compete covenant to be unreasonable, and denied Maximize’s request for the court to enforce the agreement.
The major issue with regard to consideration in this case revolved around the question “is continued employment adequate consideration for a non-compete agreement?”. The court cited previous cases, both state (Roessler v. Burwell (119 Conn. 289)) and federal (MacDermid, Inc. v. Selle (535 F. Supp.2d 308)), where the courts concluded that continued employment was adequate consideration for at-will employees for restrictive covenants with their employers. The court highlights the exchange between the parties, such that the employee receives wages and the employer receives his or her services and the protection created by the non-compete agreement. The payment and receipt of wages was adequate consideration to legitimize a non-compete agreement and render vague terms sufficient for enforcement. The court did discuss several dissenting cases but noted that the facts of those cases were critically different from the legal dispute between Ms. Makowski and Maximize. The court emphasized that the pivotal fact with regard to continued employment as adequate consideration is whether it involves at-will employment. If there is at-will employment, as was the case with Ms. Makowski, then continued employment is sufficient consideration to render the non-compete agreement enforceable.
The agreement was ultimately found to be unenforceable however due to containing unreasonable restrictions. The court highlighted the public policy of non-compete agreement enforcement and the balance that must be struck between: 1) the employer’s need to protect legitimate business interests, 2) the employee’s need to earn a living, and 3) the public’s need to secure the employee’s presence in the labor pool. Fair protection must be afforded to employer and employee alike, a principle that is absent in the agreement between Ms. Makowski and Maximize. The court specifically stated that the geographical limitation was extremely unreasonable and placed a great hardship on Ms. Makowski’s efforts to earn a living and pursue her career. Evidence pertaining to job prospects in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York revealed that the closest permissible studio to employ Ms. Makowski was located in Natick, MA, a staggering one and a half hour drive from her house. The court felt that a three hour daily, roundtrip commute was an excessive burden for Ms. Makowski to bear and concluded that this provision was indeed unreasonable and invalidated the agreement as a whole.

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